European Journal of Oncology Nursing br Materials and method
European Journal of Oncology Nursing 41 (2019) 33–40
2. Materials and methods
Τhe aim of this study was to assess the levels and explore any cor-relations between the individualized nursing care and the quality of oncology nursing care in patients diagnosed with cancer in Cyprus.
2.2. Research questions
The study was designed to provide answers to the following re-search questions:
- To what extent oncology nursing care is individualized, according to patients with cancer?
- What is the level of quality oncology nursing care, according to patients with cancer?
- Are there any correlations between individualized care and quality oncology nursing care?
- To what extent the internal consistency reliability of the Quality of Oncology Nursing Care Scale (QONCS) and the Individualized Care Scale (ICS) questionnaires were psychometrically sound in this specific population.
A descriptive correlation design was employed. The study was conducted at three diﬀerent urban hospitals in Cyprus, which are pro-vide in-patient cancer care.
The 1154-25-2 of the study consisted of patients diagnosed with cancer that were selected with consecutive sampling from the patients’ list of recruiting sites. The process of recruiting included the identifi-cation of prospective participants that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria from the recruiting sites and the process continued until all 150 eligible and consenting participants were included in the study. The response rate was 74%.
The sample consisted of 150 patients diagnosed with cancer in Cyprus that met the pre-determined inclusion criteria, based on the rule of number of items X minimum 5–10 participants.
2.6. Inclusion and exclusion criteria
The prospective participants were assessed against the following inclusion criteria:
- Participants had to be adults, over 18 years.
- They had to be able to read and write in Greek.
- They had to be patients diagnosed with cancer.
- They had to have received care as in-patients for at least 48 h.
- They had to be able to answer the questionnaires independently.
Patients with one or more of the following criteria were excluded from the study:
- Patients in protective isolation.
- Newly diagnosed patients (< 6 months).
- Terminally ill patients (End-of-Life care).
M. Kousoulou, et al.
Data were collected with the Individualized Care Scale-patient version (ICS) and the Quality of Oncology Nursing Care Scale (QONCS) additionally to sociodemographic information. The ICS is a self-ad-ministered, validated instrument with proven construct, criterion and cross-cultural validity, which assesses the patients' views regarding in-dividualized care (Suhonen et al., 2007, 2010). It comprises two parts with 17 items each in Likert type scale, ranging from 1 = fully disagree to 5 = fully agree). The first part is the Support of Individuality (ICS-A). The second part is Individuality in Care Received (ICS–B). Both parts have the following sub-scales: clinical situation, personal life-situation and decisional control. A high score indicates more support of patients’ individuality by nurses (ICS-A) and better realization of individuality in care (ICS–B) (Suhonen et al., 2010).
The QONCS assesses the self-perceived quality levels of the provided nursing care for patients diagnosed with cancer from a holistic per-spective. Thus, the assessment is based on the patients’ views and ex-pectations. The questionnaire consists of 34 items, grouped in the fol-lowing five domains: a) “being supported and confirmed” (16 items), b) “being cared for religiously and spiritually” (6 items), c) “sense of be-longing” (5 items), d) “being valued” (4 items) and e) “being respected” (3 items). The items are assessed with a Likert type scale, ranging from 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree). Higher scores corre-spond to better quality nursing care. The questionnaire was validated in Cyprus, with a Cronbach alpha 0.95 for the total scale (Charalambous and Adamakidou, 2014; Charalambous et al., 2017).
2.8. Research procedure
Prior to collecting the data, participants were informed about the purposes of the study and their right to deny participation or withdraw from the study without consequences (Berg, 2015; Mishra et al., 2018). Patients were given enough time to think about their participation and those who were willing to participate provided written consent. The questionnaires were then delivered by the nurses working in the re-cruiting sites. The patients were given enough time to complete the questionnaire. In order to reassure anonymity and confidentiality, the patients were asked to place the completed questionnaires, in a box that was placed in the hospital for Crossing-over purpose. The data collection process was 9 months and was completed in 2017. Upon completion of data collection, the data were codified and analyzed, in order to draw in-ferences.